Evaluation of using pre-lithiated graphite from recycled Li-ion batteries for new LiB anodes
This work demonstrates an experimental methodology for reusing anode material from end of life commercial lithium ion batteries (LiB) in order to create new LiB anodes. End-of-life LiB cells were safely opened and assessed as a source of anode material. Anode material extracted from LiB cells through a basic mechanical separation was cycled stably with minimal processing. The LiB cells produced with recovered anode material showed equivalent cycling capacity and lower first cycle capacity loss than similarly produced virgin graphite anodes, regardless of recycled material source or morphology, as shown by SEM imaging. The effects of some graphite pre-lithiation were seen, mainly in a lowered initial voltage of the cells before the first cycle. A methodology for scaling-up this laboratory process for industrial recycling is discussed.