Highly Graphitized Carbon Coating on SiO with a π–π Stacking Precursor Polymer for High Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries
A highly graphitized carbon on a silicon monoxide (SiO) surface coating at low temperature, based on polymer precursor π-π stacking, was developed. A novel conductive and electrochemically stable carbon coating was rationally designed to modify the SiO anode materials by controlling the sintering of a conductive polymer, a pyrene-based homopolymer poly (1-pyrenemethyl methacrylate; PPy), which achieved high graphitization of the carbon layers at a low temperature and avoided silicon carbide formation and possible SiO material transformation. When evaluated as the anode of a lithium-ion battery (LIB), the carbon-coated SiO composite delivered a high discharge capacity of 2058.6 mAh/g at 0.05 C of the first formation cycle with an initial Coulombic efficiency (ICE) of 62.2%. After 50 cycles at 0.1 C, this electrode capacity was 1090.2 mAh/g (~82% capacity retention, relative to the capacity of the second cycle at 0.1 °C rate), and a specific capacity of 514.7 mAh/g was attained at 0.3 C after 500 cycles. Furthermore, the coin-type full cell composed of the carbon coated SiO composite anode and the Li[Ni0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2] cathode attained excellent cycling performance. The results show the potential applications for using a π-π stacking polymer precursor to generate a highly graphitize coating for next-generation high-energy-density LIBs.